A Nicaraguan Sugar Mill was required to meet new wastewater discharge regulations. A feasibility study was conducted to identify the most cost-effective technology for wastewater treatment. The feasibility study included a wastewater characterization program; water audits to identify opportunities for water efficiency; source emissions testing for byproduct recovery opportunities; and capital/operation cost estimates for proposed wastewater treatment scenarios. The proposed technologies included activated sludge and several anaerobic technologies. The study identified the cost impact of improved wastewater management practices on capital and operations costs.